David Labaree who teaches in the Education Department at Stanford said: "To embrace the idea that the form of education is more important than its content is to deny the fundamental basis for the system’s legitimacy. We are willing to invest vast amounts of time, money, and social energy in the school system because it educates our young, providing them with knowledge that is useful for both students and society. To deny the centrality of academic learning in the social function of schooling, as I do here, and to say that the system’s most salient social product is not learning but credentialing, is to belie the system’s core rationale as an institution of education. Without this rationale, the system looks like a sham, which offers tokens of accomplishment that we all choose to accept as representing mastery of a body of useful knowledge even though it is really only a measure of time spent in school. The credential market works for parents and students, for employers and employees, only as long as everyone agrees to maintain the fiction that the exchange value of diplomas represents the acquisition of knowledge with use value. It is a game that relies on all parties to maintain their confidence that diplomas signal substance, that schools promote education, that learning matters. If it does not, then our whole process of assigning jobs, pursuing opportunity, and awarding merit in the US is a fraud. Understandably, no reformer wants to go there."